Flora and Fauna of Herb Mountain Farm

In 2014, Luke Cannon, aka Luke Learning Deer, helped us compile a species list of the flora and some of the fauna at Herb Mountain Farm. Over the years, Marc Williams has been a valued investor in not only updating this list, but bringing in plants to help broaden it! 

This inventory begins with a description of our farm, and then a species list, starting with trees and shrubs, of all the perennials here, as well as some animal life. This list is continually being updated, a true living document!


Species Inventory of Herb Mountain Farm

Weaverville, North Carolina compiled by Luke Cannon, Marc Williams and Mary Morgaine Squire in 2014, last updated March 2024

This list begins a general survey of the biota of Herb Mountain Farm Botanical Sanctuary. The property, starting at roughly 2,600ft and rising to about 3,800ft, primarily consists of West facing slopes but also includes some South, Northeast and North facing slopes. Herb Mountain peak rises to about 4,200ft just above, which is one of the major ridges of the Craggy Mountain range, just to the East.

The property of 138 acres primarily consists of young Mixed Pine Oak forest but also includes cultivated gardens residential, commercial and educational infrastructures along the flatter Western edge. Areas of older growth and Rich Cove forest offer higher diversity within the woodland, especially within coves along the drainages. Onion Rock, a Rocky Outcrop/Escarpment, exists along the upper ridge at about 3,600ft which deserves further investigation for uncommon species.  There are two smaller westwardly draining streams, Banjo Branch and Dry Branch, that converge on the property in the wooded area of the Nature Trail, just below the old home site(stone chimney) before running down to Maney Branch.  The Nature Trail makes a mile-long loop around the lower end of the property.

With hope this list will continue to grow and serve to aid those who will steward and enjoy this land for generations to come.

Trees, shrubs and plants are listed in alphabetical order under their scientific names by family, then genus, species and common name. Only perennials are listed, (sorry annuals!) Rare plants for the Appalachians will be indicated as “Rare”; plants of invasive status will have an * following their names. Plants that were only keyed to genus will be labeled with sp. following the generic name and spp. if there are more than one kind. Species of concern refers to its increase in dying or showing excess disease or insect damage.  Mushrooms and fungi will be listed similarly. Noted Birds are listed by their common names. More Ferns, Grasses, Rushes, Sedges, Minerals, Invertebrates and Fauna, as well as Flora, are hoped to be added over time.

FLORA

TREES AND SHRUBS:

Adoxaceae

Sambucus canadensis, Common Elderberry

Viburnum acerifolium, Maple-leaved Viburnum

Viburnum dentatum, Arrowwood

Viburnum opulus, Snowball

Viburnum prunifolium, Black Haw or Cramp Bark

Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Leatherleaf Viburnum

Viburnum trilobum, High Bush Cranberry

Viburnum X pragense, Prague Viburnum

Anacardiaceae

Rhus aromatica, Fragrant Sumac

Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac

Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac

Annonaceae

Asimina triloba, Common Paw-Paw

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex crenata, Japanese Holly

Ilex decidua, Winter Holly

Ilex glabra, Inkberry aka Appalachian Tea

Illex meservaea, Blue Maid Hollies

Ilex opaca, American Holly

Illex verticullata, Southern Gentlemen Winterberry

Berberidaceae

Berberis thunbergii, Barberry Bagatelle

Nandina domestica, Heavenly Bamboo

Betulaceae

Alnus sp., Alder

Betula lenta, Sweet Birch

Betula nigra, River Birch

Carpinus caroliniana, Musclewood

Corylus americana or cornuta, Mt. Hazelnut

Corylus avallena ‘contorta’, Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick

Ostrya virginiana, Hop Hornbeam

Buxaceae

Buxus sempervirens, Boxwood

Sarcococca hookeriana, Pumila Sweetbox

Calycanthaceae

Calycanthus floridus, Sweetshrub or Sweet Bubba or Carolina Allspice

Cannabaceae

Celtis sp. Hackberry

Caprifoliaceae

Weigelia sp.

Celastraceae

Euonymus alatus, Winged Burning Bush

Euonymus atropurpureus, Burning Bush or American Wahoo

Clethraceae

Clethra alniflora, Pepperbush

Cornaceae

Cornus alternifolia, Alternate-leaf Dogwood

Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood

Cornus drummondii, Roughleaf Dogwood

Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood (species of concern)

Cornus kousa

Cornus mas, Cornelian Cherry

Cornus racemes, Gray Dogwood

Cornus sericea, Red-osier Dogwood (Red Gnome variety)

Cupressaceae

Chamaecyparis pisifera, Boulevard Blue Sawara

Chamaecyparis pisifera, Vintage Gold Cypress

Juniperus chinensis, Angelica Blue Juniper

Juniperus conferta, Gold Coast

Juniperus horizontales, Gold strike

Thuja occidentalis, Northern Cedar

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon

Diospyros kaki, Asian Persimmon

Elaeagnaceae

Hippophae rhamnoides, Sea Buckthorne

Ericaceae

Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel

Oxydendron arboreum, Sourwood

Rhododendron austrinum, Southern Flame Azaela

Rhododendron calendulaceum, Flame azalea

Rhododendron maximum, Rosebay Rhododendron or Great Laurel

Rhododendron periclymenoides, Pinxter Azaela

Rhododendron sp., Swamp Azaela

Rhododendron spp., Rhododendron

Vaccinium altomontanum, Blue Ridge Blueberry

Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Blueberry

Vaccinium pallidum or stamineum Blueberries

Vaccinium vagratum, Rabbiteye Blueberry

Fabaceae

Albizia julibrissin, Mimosa

Cledastris kentuckea, Yellowwood

Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud

Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust (species of concern)

Fagaceae

Castanea mollisima, Chinese Chestnut

Fagus grandifolia, American Beech

Quercus alba, White Oak (species of concern)

Quercus falcata, Southern Red Oak

Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak

Quercus montana, Chestnut Oak

Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak

Quercus stellata, Post Oak

Quercus velutina, Black Oak

Gingkoaceae

Ginko biloba, Gingko

Grossulariaceae

Ribes rotundifolium, Appalachian Gooseberry*

Hamamelidaceae

Fothergilla sp., Witch Alder

Hamamelis vernal, Ozark With Hazel

Hamamelis virginiana, Witch Hazel

Hydrangeaceae

Deutzia sp. “Dwarf”

Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea

Hydrangea quercifolia, Oak Leaf Hydrangea

Hydrangea spp., Ornamental varieties

Philadelphus inodorus, Scentless Mock Orange

Illiaceae

Illicium floridanum, Star Anise Tree

Iteaceae

Itea virginica, Virginia Sweetspire

Juglandaceae

Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory

Carya glabra, Pignut Hickory

Carya ovalis, Red Hickory

Carya tomentosa, Mockernut Hickory

Carya illinoinensis, Pecan

Juglans nigra, Black Walnut

Lamiaceae

Clerodendrum sp., Glorybower

Vitex agnus castus, Chaste Berry

Vitex nigra

Lauraceae

Lindera benzoin, Spicebush

Sassafras albidum, Sassafras

Lythraceae

Lagerstromeia indica, Crepe Myrtle Siren Red Whit VII

Magnoliaceae

Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Tree

Magnolia acuminata, Cucumber Magnolia

Magnolia fraseri, Fraser or Mountain Magnolia

Magnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia

Magnolia macrophylla, Big Leaf Magnolia

Magnolia liliifolia, Japanese Magnolia

Magnolia hybrid acuminata and denudata, Butterfly Magnolia

Magnolia virginiana, Sweet Bay

Malvaceae

Hibiscus syriacus, Rose of Sharon

Tilia heterophylla, Appalachian Basswood or Linden

Tilia sp., European cultivar

Moraceae

Ficus carna, Dessert King

Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange

Morus alba, White Mulberry*

Morus rubra, Red Mulberry

Morus rubra, Dwarf variety Gerardi

Musaceae

Musa spp., Banana*

Nyssaceae

Nyssa sylvatica, Black Gum or Tupelo

Oleaceae

Abeliophylum distichum, White Forsythia

Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree or Grandaddy Graybeard

Forsythia sp., Forsythia

Fraxinus americana, White Ash

Fraxinus spp., Ash (species of concern)

Ligustrum sinense, Privet*

Syringa sp., Lilac. One is Scentara cultivar

Pinaceae  

Picea glauca, Dwarf Alberta Spruce

Pinus koraiensis, Korean Pine

Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine

Pinus virginiana, Scrub Pine

Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine

Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock (species of concern)

Tsuga caroliniana, Carolina Hemlock (this species is at risk of becoming threatened and endangered, worldwide)

Platanaceae

Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore

Rhamnaceae

Ceonothus americanus, Redroot, New Jersey Tea

Frangula carolinians, Carolina Buckthorn

Franfula alnus, Asplenifolia

Rosaceae

Amelanchier arborea, Tree Serviceberry or Juneberry

Chamaenomeles xsuperba cameo, Flowering Quince

Crataegus spp., Hawthorn

Kerria japonica, Yellow Rose of Texas

Malus sp., Apple

Physocarpus opulifolius, Ninebark

Prunus armeniaca, Apricot

Prunus avium, Bird Cherry

Prunus pensylvanica, Fire Cherry

Prunus serotina, Black Cherry (species of concern)

Prunus sp., Cherry

Prunus sp. Cherry dwarf variety Juliet

Prunus sp., Native Plum

Prunus tomentosa, Nanking Cherry

Pyrus communis, Pear

Rosa caroliniana, Carolina Rose

Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose*

Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose*

Rosa virginiana, Virginia Rose

Rosa spp., Rose Ornamentals (Morgaine’s apothecary rose from Muffi; Firefighter; Celestial Night;

Rubus occidentalis, Black Cap Raspberry

Rubus phoenicolasius, Wineberry

Rubus sp., Blackberry

Rubus sp., Raspberry

Sorbus americana, Rowan or Mountain Ash

Spirea alba, White flowering Spirea

Spirea japonica* Very Invasive

Spirea prunifolia, Old-Fashioned Bridle Wreath Spirea

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis, Buttonbush

Gardenia jasmanoides, Gardenia

Rutacee

Ptelea trifoliata Wafer Ash or Hoptree

Poncirus trifoliata, Trifoliate Orange “Flying Dragon”

Salicaceae

Salix babylonica, Weeping Willow

Salix caprea, Dwarf Pussy Willow

Salix discolor, Pussy Willow

Salix sp., Willow, basket willows

Sapindaceae

Acer japonica, Japanese Maple Vitifolium

Acer negundo, Eastern Box Maple or Box Elder

Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple

Acer rubrum, Red Maple

Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple

Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple

Aesculus sylvatica, Painted Buckeye

Koelreuteria paniculata, Golden Rain Tree

Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven*

Styracaceae

Halesia tetraptera, Carolina Silverbell

Styrax americanus, American Snowbell

Taxaceae

Taxus sp., Yew

Theaceae

Cammelia sinensis, Tea

Thymelaeaceae

Daphne odora, Daphne

Ulmaceae

Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm

HERBACEOUS PLANTS (MONOCOTS)

Acoraceae

Acorus calamus, Sweet Flag or Calamus

Agavaceae

Agave americana, Agave

Camassia scilloides, Eastern Camas or Quamash Lily

Hosta spp., Hosta

Yucca filamentosa, Yucca

Amaryllidaceae

Allium spp., Ornamentals

Allium cernuum, Nodding Onion

Allium sativum, Garlic as we love it!

Alium tricoccum, Ramps

Allium vineale, Field Garlic or Wild Onion

Lycoris radiata, Red Spider Lily

Narcissus pseudonarcissus, Daffodil

Araceae

Amorphophallus konjac, Voodoo Lily

Arisaema dracontium, Green Dragon

Arisaema triphyllum, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian Turnip

Arum maculatum, Lords and Ladies

Zantedeschia aethiopica, Calla Lilly

Asparagaceae

Hesperaloe parviflora, Red Yucca

Maianthemum racemosum, Solomon’s Plume

Polygonatum biflorum or pubescens, Solomon's Seal

Polygonatum kingianum, Huang Jing

Asphodelaceae  (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

Asphodelus albus, Asphodel

Hemerocallis fulva, Day Lily

Colchicaceae

Uvularia perfoliata, Perfoliate Bellwort

Uvularia sessilifolia, Sessile Bellwort

Commelinaceae

Commelina communis, Asiatic Dayflower

Tradescantia ohiensis, Spiderwort

Cyperaceae

Carex cherokeeninsis, Cherokee Sedge

Carex flaca, Blue Zinger Sedge

Carex pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Sedge

Carex plantaginea, Plantain Leaved Sedge

Carex spp., Sedges

Dioscoraceae

Dioscorea polystachya, Cinnamonvine, Air Potato*   

Dioscorea villosa, Wild Yam

Iridaceae

Crocosmia sp., Lucifer’s Tongue

Iris cristata, Dwarf Crested Iris

Iris fulva, Copper Iris

Iris pseudoacorus, Yellow Flag

Iris spp.

Juncaceae

Juncus effusus, Soft Rush

Juncus tenuis, Path Rush

Hyacinthaceae

Hyacinthus orientalis

Hyacinthus transcaspicus

Muscari atlanticum, Grape Hyacinth

Ornithogalum umbellatum, Star of Bethlehem

Liliaceae

Erythronium sp., Trout Lily

Lilium michauxii, Carolina Lily

Lilium superbum, Turk’s Cap Lily

Liriope muscari, Liriope

Medeola virginiana, Wild or Indian Cucumber

Prosartes lanuginosa, Yellow Mandarin or Fairy Bells

Scilla siberica, Siberian Squill

Melanthiaceae

Chamelirium luteum, Fairy Wand

Trillium cuneatum, Sweet Betsy or Purple Toadshade

Trillium catesbaei, Nodding Pink Flowering Trillium

Trillium erectum, Stinking Willie

Trillium luteum, Yellow Trillium

Trillium rugelii, Southern or Tall Nodding Trillium    

Veratrum viride, White Hellebore or Cornhusk-lily

Orchidaceae

Aplectrum hyemale, Adam and Eve or Puttyroot   

Corallorhiza sp., Coralroot Orchid

Cypripedium acaule, Pink Lady’s Slippers

Galearis spectabilis, Showy Orchid

Goodyera pubescens, Rattlesnake Orchid

Spiranthes cernua, Nodding Ladies’ Tresses   

Tipularia discolor, Cranefly Orchid

Poaceae

Andropogon gerdi, Black Hawk Grass

Anthoxanthum odorata, Eastern Vernal Sweetgrass

Arundinaria gigantea, Rivercane

Arundo donax, Peppermint Stick or Striped Giant Reed*

Bouteloua curtipendula, Sideoats Gramma

Chasmanthium latifolium, River Oats

Dichanthelium clandestinum, Deer-Tongue Grass

Dichanthelium sp., Witch Grass

Digitaria sanguinalis, Hairy Crag Grass

Heirochloe odorata, Ceremonial Sweetgrass

Leymus arenerius, Blue Lyme Grass

Microstegium vimineum,  Japanese Stilt Grass*

Miscanthus sinensis,  Chinese Silver Grass*

Muhlenbergia capillaris, Pink Hair Grass

Panicum virgatum, Panicgrass or Switchgrass

Phalaris arundinacea, Reed Canary Grass*

Poa annua, Bluegrass

Schizachyrium scoparium, Little Bluestem

Sorghum halapense, Johnson Grass*

Smilacaceae

Smilax glauca, Greenbrier or Sarsparilla

Smilax herbacea, Smooth Carrion Flower

Smilax rotundifolia, Common Greenbriar or Catbriar  

Typhaceae

Typha angustifolia or latifolia, Cattail*

HERBACEOUS PLANTS (DICOTS)

Acanthaceae

Acanthus mollis and spinosa, Bear’s Breeches

Ruellia caroliniensis, Carolina Wild Petunia

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus spp.

Chenopodium album, Lamb’s Quarter or Goose-foot

Anacardiaceae

Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy

Apiaceae

Angelica archangelica, European Angelica

Angelica gigas, Angelica

Angelica sinensis, Dong Quai

Angelica triquinata, Filmy Angelica

Cryptotaenia canadensis, Honewort

Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace

Eryngium yuccifolium, Rattlesnake Master

Ligusticum canadense, Appalachian Osha or Angelico

Myrrhis odorata, European Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza claytonii, Sweet Cicely

Osmorhiza longistylis, Long Style Sweet Cicely

Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip

Sanicula canadensis, Short-styled Snakeroot

Sanicula gregaria, Clustered Snakeroot

Zizia aurea, Common Golden Alexander

Apocynaceae

Amsonia tabernaemontana, Blue Star

Apocynum cannibinum, Dogbane

Asclepias exaltata, Poke Leaved Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias quadrifolia, Four-Leaved Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Weed

Matelea carolinensis, Carolina Milkvine

Vinca minor, Vinca or Periwinkle

Araliaceae

Aralia racemosa, Spikenard

Aralia spinosa, Devil’s Walking Stick

Hedera helix, English Ivy

Eleuthrococcus sp., Siberian Ginseng

Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng

Tetrapanax papyrifer, Rice Paper Plant  

Aristolochiaceae

Isotrema macrophyllum, Dutchman’s Pipevine

Aristolochia serpentaria, Virginia Snakeroot

Asarum canadense, Wild Ginger

Asarum splendens. Asian Wild Ginger

Hexastylis arifolia, Little Brown Jugs

Asteraceae

Achillea borealis, Native Yarrow

Achillea millifolium, Yarrow

Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Common Ragweed *

Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed

Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pelliatory

Antennaria plantagnifolia, Rosy Pussy-Toes

Arctium minus, Common Burdock

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium, Pale Indian Plantain

Artemisia absinthium, Wormwood

Artemisia annua, Sweet Annie

Artemisia vulgaris, Mugwort*

Aster novae-anglia, Alma Potschke

Aster oblongifolus, Aromatic Aster

Bidens frondosa, Beggar’s Ticks

Bigelowia nuttallii, Nutalls Rayless Goldenrod

Boltonia asteroides, Wavy Aster

Centaurea cyanus, Bachelor’s Button

Chrysanthemum morifolium, Gong-ju-hua and Bo-ju-hua

Chrysogonum virginianum, Green and Gold

Chrysopsis mariana, Golden Aster

Cichorium intybus, Chicory

Cirsium discolor, Field thistle

Cirsium sp., Thistle

Conoclinum coelestinum, Blue Mist or Hardy Ageratum

Coreopsis latifolia

Coreopsis major, Whorled Coreopsis

Coreopsis sp., Ornamentals

Dahlia pinnata, Dahlia

Echinacea angustifolia, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata, Native Appalachian Echinacea

Echinacea paradoxa, Ozark Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea, Eastern Purple Coneflower

Echinacea tennesseensis, Tennesse Purple Coneflower

Elephantopus tomentosa/carolinianus, Elephant’s Foot

Erechtites heiraciifolius, Pilewort

Erigeron annus, Annual Fleabane

Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane

Erigeron pulchellus, Robin’s Plantain

Eupatorium perfoliatum, Boneset

Eupatorium serotinum, Thoroughwort or Late Boneset

Eurybia divaricata, White Heart-leaved or Wood Aster

Eurybia macrophyllum, Big Leaf Aster

Euthamia graminifolia, Grass-Leaved Goldenrod

Eutrochium maculatum, Spotted Joe-Pye Weed

Eutrochium steelei, Appalchian Joe-Pye Weed

Galinsoga ciliata,  Galinsoga or Quickweed

Helianthus angustifolius, Swamp Sunflower

Helianthus grosseserratus, Sawtooth Sunflower

Helianthus maximilianii, Maximillian Sunflower

Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower

Helianthus niveus, Showy Sunflower

Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliopsis helianthoides, Oxeye Sunflower

Hieracium venosum, Rattlesnake weed

Inula helenium, Elecampane

Ionactis linariifolius, Stiff-leaved Aster

Krigia montana, Mountain Dwarf Dandelion

Lactuca canadense, Wild Lettuce

Leucanthemum vulgare, Ox-Eye Daisy

Liatris aspera, Rough Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya, Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris spicata, Blazing Star or Gayfeather

Marshall mohrii, Barbara’s Buttons

Nabalus altissimus, White Lettuce or Gall of the Earth

Packera anonyma, Small’s Ragwort

Packera aurea, Golden Ragwort

Parthenium integrifolium, Wild Quinine

Petasites japonica, Giant Coltsfoot, Fuki*

Pityopsis graminifolia, Narrow-leaf Silk Grass

Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium, Rabbit Tobacco or Sweet Everlasting

Ratibida pinnata, Prairie or Gray-headed Coneflower

Rudbeckia hirta, Black Eyed Susan

Rudbeckia laciniata, Sochan or Tall Yellow Coneflower

Rudbeckia fulgide, Orange Coneflower

Rudbeckia maxima, Giant/Great/Large Coneflower

Santolina chamaecyparissus, Lavender Cotton

Senecio vulgaris, Common Groundsel

Silphium laciniatum, Compass Plant

Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant

Silphium wasiotense, Appalachian Rosinweed

Silphium trifoliatum, Whorled Rosinweed

Smallanthus uvedalia, Leafcup or Bear’s Foot 

Silybum marianum, Milk Thistle

Solidago arguta, Atlantic Goldenrod

Solidago bicolor, Silverrod

Solidago curtisii Mountain Decumbent Goldenrod

Solidago canadensis, Canada Goldenrod

Solidago flexicaulis Zigzag Goldenrod

Solidago nemoralis, Gray Goldenrod

Solidago odora, Anise Scented Goldenrod

Solidago rugosa, Wrinkled Leaf Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod

Solidago sphacelata, Autumn Goldenrod

Sonchus oleraceus, Common Sow Thistle  

Stokesia laevis, Stoke’s Aster

Symphyotrichum cordifolium, Common Blue Wood Aster

Symphyotrichum dumosum, Rice Button Aster

Symhpyotrichum ericoides, White Heath Aster

Symhpyotrichum laeve, Smooth Blue Aster

Symphyotrichum patens, Late Purple Aster

Symphyotrichum pilosum, Frost Aster

Symphyotrichum puniceum, Swamp Aster

Symphyotrichum undulatum, Wavyleaf Aster

Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew

Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy 

Taraxacum officinale, Dandelion

Tristem perfoliatum, Horse Gentian or Feverwort

Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem

Verbesina virginica, White Crownbeard

Vernonia altissima, Ironweed

Xanthium spinosum/strumarium, Cockleburr

Youngia japonica, Asian Hawksbeard

Balsaminaceae

Impatiens capensis, Spotted Jewelweed

Impatiens pallida, Pale or Yellow Jewelweed

Berberidaceae

Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh

Epimedium sp., Horny Goat Weed

Jeffersonia diphylla, Twin Leaf

Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple  

Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans, Trumpet Vine

Boraginaceae  

Anchusa ochroleuca, Yellow Alkanet

Anchusa officinalis, Anchusa Azure

Borago officinalis, Borage

Cynoglossum virginiana, Hound’s Tounge

Hydrophyllum sp., Waterleaf

Mertensia virginica, Virginia Bluebells

Myosotis sp., Forget-Me-Not

Phacelia bipinnatifida, Fern-leaved Phacelia

Pulmonaria officinalis, Lungwort

Symphytum grandiflorum, Running Comfrey Hydicote Blue*

Symphytum officinale, Comfrey

Symyphyum uplandicum, Russian Comfrey

Brassicaceae

Armoracia rusticana, Horseradish

Barbarea verna, Cress

Brassica rapa, Field Mustard/Wild Rutabaga

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shephard’s Purse

Cardamine hirsuta, Wintercress

Cardimine laciniata, Cut-leaved Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Watercress

Draba verna, Vernal Whitlow Grass

Erysimum sp. Wallflower

Iberis sempervirens, Candytuft

Lepidium campestre, Resourceful Person’s Pepper

Lunaria annua, Money Plant

Nasturtium officinale, Watercress

Orychophragmus violaceus, Chinese Violet Cress

Buxaceae

Pachysandra procumbens, Allegheny Spurge

Cactaceae

Cylindropuntia imbricata, Tree Cholla

Cylindropuntia x viridiflora, Rat Tail Cholla

Echinocereus triglochidiatus, King Cup Cactus

Opuntia humifusa, Eastern Prickly Pear

Opuntia spp., Prickly Pear

Campanulaceae

Campanula americana, Tall Bellflower

Campanula divaricata, Southern Harebell

Laurentia (or Isotoma) fluviatilis, Blue Star Creeper

Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinal Flower

Lobelia inflata, Indian Tobacco

Lobelia puberula Downy Lobelia

Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia

Lobelia spicata, White Lobelia

Lobelia spp., Lobelia

Triodanis perfoliata, Venus Looking Glass

Caprifoliaceae

Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle*

Lonicera sempervirens, Southeastern Native Honeysuckle or Coral Honeysuckle

Valeriana officinalis, Valerian

Caryophyllaceae

Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare, Mouse-eared chickweed

Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink

Dianthus deltoides, Maiden Pink

Dianthus spp., Sweet Williams

Saponaria officinalis, Bouncing Bet or Soapwort

Silene caroliniana, Wild Pink, Catchfly

Silene ovata, Blue Ridge Catchfly

Silene stellata, Starry Campion, Widow’s frill

Silene virginica, Fire Pink

Silene vulgaris, Maiden’s Tears or Bladder Campion

Stellaria media, Common Chickweed

Stellaria pubera, Great Chickweed

Valerianella locusta, Corn Salad or Mache

Celastraceae

Celastrus orbiculatus, Oriental Bittersweet*

Euonymus fortunei, Wintercreeper*

Cistaceae

Lechea minor, Thymeleaf Pinweed

Cleomaceae

Cleome hassleriana, Spider flower

Convolvulaceae

Calystegia spp., Bindweed

Convolvulus arvensis, Morning Glory*

Cuscuta sp., Dodder

Ipomoea coccinea, Small Red Morning Glory

Ipomoea hederacea Ivy Leaf Morning Glory

Ipomoea purpurea, Common Morning Glory*

Crassulaceae

Hylotelephium spectabile, Autumn Joy

Hylotelephium telephioides, Allegheny Stonecrop. Locally Rare

Sedum telephioides, Live Forever

Sedum ternatum, Wild Stonecrop

Cucurbitaceae

Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Jiaogulan* (INVASIVE!)

Diapensiaceae

Galax urceolata, Galax

Shortia galacifolia, Oconee Bells

Ephedraceae

Ephedra sp., Mahuang or Mormon Tea

Equisetaceae

Equisetum arvense, Field Horsetail

Equisetum hyemale affinis, Scouring Rush

Ericaceae

Chimaphila maculata, Striped Pipsissewa

Gaultheria procumbens, Wintergreen

Leucothoe fontanesiana, Dog Hobble

Monotropa hypopitys, Pine Sap

Monotropa uniflora, Ghost Pipe or Indian Pipe

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha sp., Three-seeded Mercury

Chamaesyce maculata, Spotted Spurge

Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias, Graveyard Plant or Cypress Spurge*

Euphorbia lathyris, Mole Plant or Gopher Spurge

Euphorbia maculata, Prostrate Spurge

Ricinus communis, Castor Bean  

Fabaceae

Amorpha fruitcosa, Desert False Indigo

Amphicarpa bracteata, Hog Peanut

Apios americana, Groundnut

Astragalus canadensis, Canadian Milkvetch

Astragalus propinquus, Astragalus

Baptisia australis, Wild Indigo

Baptisia leucantha, White False Indigo

Baptisia, Decadence Lemon Meringue cultivar

Desmanthus illinoensis, Prairiehuasca

Desmodium glutinosum, Pointed Leaf Tick Trefoil

Desmodium nudiflorum, Naked Flower Tick Trefoil

Genista tinctoria, Dyer’s Broom

Lathyrus latifolia, Sweet Pea

Lespezeda spp.

Lupinus spp., Lupines*

Securigera varia, Crown Vetch

Senna hebecarpa, Northern Wild Senna

Tephrosia virginiana, Devil’s Shoestrings

Thermopsis villosa, Golden Banner

Trifolium campestre, Low Hop Clover

Trifolium pratense, Red Clover

Trifolium repens, White Clover

Vicia sp., Vetch

Wisteria frutescens, Native Wisteria

Gentianaceae

Gentian sp., True Blue Gentian

Gentiana andrewsii, Andrew’s or Bottle Gentian

Gentiana lutea, Yellow Gentian

Gentiana tibetica, Tibetan Gentian

Obolaria virginica, Woodland Pennywort or Coy Gentian  

Geraniaceae

Geranium maculatum, Wild Geranium

Geranium molle, Dove’s Foot Geranium

Hypericaceae

Hypericum gentianoides, Orangegrass

Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort

Hypericum prolificum, Shrubby St. John’s Wort

Hypericum punctatum, Spotted Saint John’s Wort

Hypercium sp., St. Andrew’s Cross

Lamiaceae

Agastache foeniculum, Anise Hyssop

Betonica officinalis, Hedgenettle

Blephilia ciliata or hirsuta, Downy wood mint

Caryopteris x clandonensis, Bluebeard

Collinsonia canadensis, Richweed, Horsebalm or Stoneroot

Glechoma hederacea, Ground Ivy, Alehoof or Gill Over the Ground*

Lamiastrum galeobdoblon, Herman’s Pride Archangel* 

Lamium aplexicaule, Henbit

Lamium purpureum, Purple Dead Nettle

Lavandula spp., Lavender (Munstead, Elegance Purple, Czech)

Leonurus cardiaca, Motherwort

Leonurua sibiricus, Siberian Motherwort

Lycopus europaeus, Europe Bugleweed*

Lycopus virginicus, American Bugleweed

Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm

Mentha longifolia, Habek Biblical Mint

Mentha piperita, Peppermint

Mentha spp., Mints* Invasive

Monarda didyma, Bee Balm or Oswego Tea

Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot

Monarda punctatum, Spotted Bee Balm

Nepeta cataria, Catnip

Ocimum sanctum, Holy Basil

Origanum vulgare, Oregano

Perilla frutescens, Shiso

Physostegia virginiana, Obedient Plant  

Prunella vulgaris, Heal-All or Self Heal

Pycnanthemum montanum, Thinleaf Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum sp., Mountain Mint

Salvia lyrata or urticifolia, Lyre Leaf Sage

Salvia officinalis, Garden Sage

Salvia guaranitica, Black and Blue Sage

Salvia miltiorrhiza, Red Sage/Denshen

Salvia rosmarinus, Rosemary

Salvia sclarea, Clary Sage

Salvia spp., More Ornamental Sages

Scutellaria baicalensis, Chinese Skullcap

Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap

Scutellaria integrifolia, Helmet or Rough Skullcap

Scutellaria lateriflora, Mad Dog Skullcap

Teucrium chamaedrys, Creeping Germander

Thymus vulgaris, Thyme varieties    

Linaceae

Linium usitatissimum, Flax

Loganiaceae

Spigelia marilandica, Indian Pink

Malvaceae

Althea officinalis, Marshmallow

Hibiscus coccineus, Swamp Hibiscus

Hibiscus moscheutos, Rose Mallow

Hibiscus spp., more ornamental and native varieties

Hibiscus trionum, Flower-of-an-Hour

Malva neglecta, Common Mallow or Cheese Mallow

Sida sp., Sida

Montiaceae

Claytonia virginica, Spring Beauty

Phemeranthus sp. (probably teretifolius).  Appalachian Rock Pink or Flame Flower.  This sp. though not rare, is restricted to rocky outcrops. Located on Onion Rock.   

Moraceae

Fatoua villas, Mulberry Weed*

Myricaceae

Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern

Nyctaginaceae

Mirabilis jalapa, 4 o’clocks

Oleaceae

Jasminum nudiflorum, Winter Jasmine

Onagraceae

Circaea quadrisulcata or lutetiana, Enchanter’s Nightshade

Gaura biennis, Beeblossom

Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox

Oenothera biennis, Evening Primrose

Onethera fremontii, Shimmer

Oenothera fruticosa, Sundrops

Oenothera speciosa, Pink Ladies or Mexican Primrose

Orobanchaceae

Agalinus tenuifolia, Common Gerardia

Aureolaria flava, False-foxglove or Oak-leech

Aureolaria virginia, Downy False Foxglove

Conopholis americana, Bear Corn

Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops

Orobanche minor, Common Broomrape

Pedicularis canadensis, Lousewort 

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis corniculata, Creeping Wood Sorrel

Oxalis montana, Mountain Wood Sorrel

Oxalis stricta, Common Yellow Wood Sorrel

Paeoniaceae

Paeonia sp., Peony

Papaveraceae  

Corydalis micrantha subsp. australis, Southern Corydalis or Scrambled Eggs

Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn

Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchman’s Breeches

Dicentra spectabilis, White and Pink Bleeding Hearts

Eschscholzia californica, California Poppy

Papaver rhoeas, Common Poppy

Papaver somniferum, Opium Poppy

Papaver orientale, Turkish Poppy

Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot

Stylophorum diphyllum, Wood Poppy or Celandine

Passifloraceae

Passiflora incarnata, Passionflower

Passiflora lutea, Yellow Passionflower

Phrymaceae

Mimulus ringens, Monkey Flower

Phryma leptostachya, Lopseed  

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca americana, Pokeweed

Plantaginaceae

Chelone lyonii, Turtlehead

Chelone spp., Turtleheads

Digitalis purpurea, Foxglove

Penstemon spp., Beardtongue

Penstemon calycosus, Longsepal Beardtongue

Penstemon digitalis, Foxglove Penstemon

Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue

Plantago lanceolata, Lance Leaf Plantain

Plantago major, Wide Leaf Plantain

Plantago rugelii, Black Seed Purple Stem Wide Plantain

Veronica americana, American Brookline

Veronica beccabunga, Water Forget-Me-Not

Veronica peduncularis, Georgia Blue

Veronica persica, Bird’s Eye Speedwell

Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-leaved Veronica

Veronicastrum virginicum, Culver’s Root

Plumbaginaceae

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides, Plumbago

Polemoniaceae

Phlox carolina, Carolina Phlox

Phlox spp., Phlox

Phlox stolonifera, Creeping Phlox

Phlox subulata, Emerald Blue Phlox

Polygonaceae

Eriogonum allenii, Yellow Buckwheat

Fallopia multiflora, Heshouwu or Foti

Fallopia scandens, Climbing Wild Buckwheat

Polygonum spp., Knotweed, Smartweed,

Polygonum tenue, Pleatleaf Knotweed

Rumex acetosella, Sheep Sorrel

Rumex crispus, Curly Dock

Rumex obtusifolia, Obtuse Yellow Dock

Rumex sanguineus, Bloody Dock

Tovara virginiana, Virginia Jumpseed

Portulacaceae

Portulaca oleracea, Purslane

Primulaceae

Anagallis arvensis, Scarlet Pimpernel

Lysimachia ciliata v.purperea

Lysimachia clethroides, Gooseneck Loosestrife

Lysimachia japonica, Dwarf Creeping Jenny “minutissima”

Lysimachia lanceolate, Lance-leaved Loosestrife

Primula auricula, Yellow Mountain Cowslip

Primula meadia, Shooting Star

Ranunculaceae

Actaea pachypoda, Doll’s Eyes

Actaea podocarpa, Mountain Bugbane

Actaea racemosa, Black Cohosh

Anemone pulsatilla, Pasqueflower, Wind Flower, Easter Flower

Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone

Anemone virginiana, Thimbleweed

Aquilegia canadensis, Columbine

Aquilegia spp., ornamental Columbines

Clematis virginiana, Virgin’s Bower

Clematis spp., Ornamental Clematis

Delphinium exaltum, Tall Larkspur

Delphinium tricorne, Wild Larkspur

Helleborus orientalis, Lenten Rose

Hepatica acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica

Hepatica nobilis, Liverwort, Liverleaf

Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal

Ranunculus abortivus, Small-flowered Crowfoot

Ranunculus bulbosus, Bulb-bearing Buttercup

Thalictrum dioicum, Meadow Rue

Trautvetterria carolinensis, Carolina Tassel Rue

Xanthorhiza simplicissima, Yellowroot

Rosaceae

Agrimonia parviflora, Small Flowering Agrimony

Agrimonia rostellata, Beaked Agrimony

Alchemilla vulgaris, Lady’s Mantle

Aruncus dioicus, Goatsbeard

Filipendula rubra, Meadowsweet or Queen of the Prairie

Fragaria sp., Strawberry

Geum sp., Avens

Gillenia stipulata, American Ipecac

Potentilla canadensis, Dwarf Cinquefoil

Potentilla indica, Indian Strawberry

Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil

Sanguisorba minor, Salad Burnet

Rubiaceae

Diodia virginiana, Buttonweed

Galium aparine, Cleavers

Galium lanceolatum, Wild Licorice/Lance-leaved Galium

Galium latifolium, Wideleaf Bedstraw

Galium odorata, Sweet Woodruff

Galium pedemontanum

Houstonia purpurea, Purple Houstonia    

Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry or Twin Flower (Species of concern)

Rubia tinctorum, Madder

Sherardia arvensis, Blue Field Madder*

Rutaceae

Ruta graveolens, Rue

Saururaceae

Anemopsis californica, Yerba Mansa

Houttuynia sp., Vietnamese Coriander*

Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail

Saxifragaceae

Astilbe biternata, Appalachian Goat’s-beard

Astilbe sp., Ornamental

Heuchera americana, American Alumroot

Heuchera spp., Coral Bells

Micranthes micranthidifolia, Branch Lettuce

Mitella diphylla, Miterwort or Bishop’s Cap

Tiarella cordifolia, Foam Flower

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophularia nodosa, Figwort

Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein

Verbascum phoeniceum, Bouquet Mullein

Verbascum olympicum, Greek Mullein

Verbascum thapsus, Mullein

Solanaceae

Brugmansia versicolor, Apricot Angel’s trumpet

Datura metel, Indian Thornapple

Datura stramonium, Datura/Jimson weed

Nicandra physalodes, Apple of Peru

Nicotiana sp., Tobacco

Solanum americanum, Black Nightshade

Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horse Nettle

Talinanceae

Talinum panicualtum, Jewels of Opar or Fame Flower

Urticaceae

Laportea canadensis, Wood Nettle

Pilea pumila, Clearweed

Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle*

Verbenaceae

Verbena hastata, Blue Vervain

Verbena stricta, Hoary Vervain

Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain

Violaceae

Hybanthus concolor, Eastern Green Violet

Viola blanda, Sweet white Violet

Viola hastata, Halberd-leaved Violet

Viola pedata, Birdfoot Violet  

Viola pallens, Northern White Violet

Viola palmata, Early Blue Violet

Viola pubescens, Yellow Woodland Violet

Viola sororia var. sororia, Blue or Confederate Violet

Vitaceae

Parthenocissus quinquifolia, Virginia Creeper

Vitis sp., Fox Grape

Vitis sp., Scuppernong

Vitis sp., Grapes (Venus Seedless)

FERNS:

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium platyneuron, Ebony Spleenwort

Asplenium montanum, Mountain Spleenwort

Athyriaceae

Athyrium niponicum, Japanese Painted Fern

Dennstaedtiaceae

Pteridium aquilinum, Bracken Fern

Dryopteridaceae

Polystichum acrostichoides, Christmas Fern

Onocleaceae

Matteuccia struthiopteris, Ostrich Fern

Ophioglossaceae

Botrypus virginianus, Rattlesnake Fern or Sang-pointer

Osmundaceae

Osmunda regalis, Royal Fern

Sinopteridaceae

Adiantum capillus-veneris or pedatum, Maiden Hair Fern

Woodsiaceae

Athyrium filix-femina subsp. angustum or filix- femina subsp. aspleniodes, Lady Fern

Onoclea sensibilis, Sensitive Fern

Woodsia obtusa, Bluntlobe Cliff Fern

Polypodiaceae

Pleopeltis polypodioides, Resurrection Fern

Polypodium appalachianum, Appalachian Polypody

Thelypteridaceae

Phegopteris hexagonoptera, Broad Beech Fern

Thelypteris noveboracensis, New York Fern

LYCOPHYTES:

Huperziaceae (a clubmoss family)

Huperzia lucidula, Shining Clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae (a clubmoss family)

Diphasiastrum digitatum, Fan Clubmoss

Lycopodium spp., Running Cedar

Selaginellaceae

Selaginella sp.

MOSSES:

Brachytheciaceae

Bryoandersonia sp.

Fissidentaceae

Fissidens sp.

Orthotrichaceae

Ulota crispa

Polytrichaceae

Atrichium sp.

Polytrichum commune 

Thuidiaceae

Thuidium sp.

FUNGI:

Agaricaceae

Lycoperdon

Boletaceae

Strobilomyces, Old Man of the Woods

Cantherellaceae

Cantharellus sp., Chanterelle

Corydicypitaceae

Cordyceps sp.

Helotiaceae

Chlorociboria aeruginascens, Blue-Green Stain Fungus

Hygrophoreaceae

Hygrophorus flavescens, Yellow Waxy Cap

Hypocreaceae

Hypomyces, Lobster Mushroom

Marasmiaceae

Marasmius rotula, Pinwheel Mushroom

Morchellaceae

Morchella esculenta, Morel

Nidulariaceae

Bird’s Nest Fungus

Omphalotaceae
Lentinula edodes, Shiitake

Omphalotus illudens, Jack O’ Lantern

Physalacriaceae

Armillaria sp. Honey Mushrooms

Pluerotaceae

Pleurotus ostreatus, Oyster Mushroom

Polyporaceae

Fistulina hepatica, Beefsteak Fungus

Laetiporus sp. Chicken of the Woods

Phellinus robiniae, Locust Polypore

Trametes versicolor, Common Turkey Tail

Trichaptum biforme, Violet-toothed Polypore

Pyronemataceae

Scutellinia scutellata, Eyelash Cup Fungus

Russulaceae

Russula sp., Russula

Lactarius spp.

Sebacinaceae

Tremellodendron pallidum, False Jelly Coral

Stereaceae

Stereum ostrea, Oyster Shaped Stereum

Xylariaceae

Xylaria polymorpha, Dead-man’s Fingers

LICHENS:

Umbilicaria americanus, Rock Trype

Usnea

SLIME MOLDS:

Lycogala epidendrum, Wolf’s Milk Slime Mold

Stemonitis splendens, Chocolate Tube-Slime

FAUNA

SIGNIFICANT INVERTEBRATES:

Halyomorpha halys, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug- Invading the home and land!!!!

Hypochilidae, Lampshade Spider. One of the oldest known lineages of living spiders.  Lives in wide funnel/lampshade shaped webs on rock boulders or overhangs.  Found on boulder near waterfall.

Mantis religiosa, European mantis

Meloe americanus, Blue-humpbacked-blister Beetle

Ground Wasps

BUTTERFLIES:

Nymphalidae

Danaus plexippus, Monarch

Polygonia comma, Comma

Papilonidae

Battus philenor, Pipevine Swallowtail

Papilio troilus, Spicebush Swallowtail

Pieridae

Phoebis sennae Suplhur

Pieris rapae, Cabbage White

BIRDS: (Seen or heard on the Property)

Accipitridae

Accipiter cooperi, Cooper’s Hawk

Circus hudsonius, Northern Harrier

Bombycillidae

Bombycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing

Cardinalidae

Cardinalis cardinalis, Cardinal

Passerina ciris, Painted Bunting

Passerina cyanea, Indigo Bunting

Piranga olivacea, Scarlet Tanager

Cathartidae

Cathartes aura, Turkey Vulture

Certhidae

Tree Creeper

Columbidae

Zenaida macroura, Mourning Dove

Corvidae

Corvus sp., Crow

Cyanocitta cristata Bluejay

Cuculidae

Coccyzus erythrothalmus, Black-Billed Cuckoo

Fringillidae

Coccothraustes vespertinus, Evening Grosbeak

Spinus tristis, American Goldfinch

Hirundinidae

Hirundo rustica, Barn Swallow

Mimidae

Dumetella carolinensis, Gray Catbird

Mimus polyglottos, Northern Mockingbird

Paridae

Poecile carolinensis, Carolina Chickadee

Baeolophus bicolor, Tufted Titmouse

Parulidae

Mniotilta varia, Black and White Warbler

Seiurus aurocapilla, Oven Bird

Setophaga citrina, Hooded Warbler

Passerilidae

Junco hyemalis, Dark-Eyed Junco

Melospiza melodia, Song Sparrow

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, Eastern Towhee

Other Sparrows

Phasianidae

Grouse

Pheasant

Meleagris gallopavo, Wild Turkey

Picidae

Colaptes auratus, Northern Flicker

Dryobates pubescens , Downy Woodpecker

Dryocopus pileatus, Pileated Woodpecker

Leuconotopicus villosus, Hairy Woodpecker

Melanerpes carolinus, Red-bellied Woodpecker

Regulidae

Regulus satrapa, Goldencrowned Kinglet

Strigidae

Bubo virginianis, Great Horned Owl

Megascops asio, Eastern Screech Owl

Strix varia, Barred Owl

Trochilidae
Archilochus colubris, Ruby-Throated Hummingbird

Troglodytidae

Thryothorus ludovicianus, Carolina Wren

Troglodytes hiemalis, Winter Wren

Turdidae

Sialia sp., Blue Bird

Turdus migratorius, American Robin

Tyrinnidae

Sayornis phoebe, Eastern Phoebe or Flycatcher

Tytonidae

Tyto alba, Barn Owl

Vireonidae

Vireo olivaceus, Red-Eyed Vireo

We added Gambusia Mosquito Fish to Emerald Pond, gifts from Doug and Yanna